This is how Bitcoin works in the cryptocurrency world

In case you don’t know, Bitcoin is a type of decentralized network cryptocurrency. In this process, transactions are based on a 16-digit encrypted address. Simply put, it’s like your social security number. In terms of security, only you can transfer funds because you have an address that supports two-factor authentication. In fact, Bitcoin consists of a network of several independent computers that are responsible for generating, distributing and verifying monetary transactions. Let’s find out more.
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How do you buy Bitcoin?

If you want to buy bitcoins, make sure you have a wallet app installed on your computer. With this app you can send and receive as many bitcoins as you want.
To purchase bitcoins, you must deposit funds into your web wallet, which acts as a bridge between sellers and buyers.

Once the exchange has accepted your currency, your next step is to place an order, which is similar to buying a stock.
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How does bitcoin work?

Bitcoin is essentially an international decentralized peer-to-peer network. Below is a description of how Bitcoin works.
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1. First of all, bitcoins are created by using computers to solve mathematical functions. And then there is the transaction verification process.

2. In the next step, traditional currencies are used to exchange Bitcoin. In fact, it works as a gateway to the world of cryptocurrency, especially for non-miners. You can say it is similar to buying stocks using a trading app.
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3. Whether you are an individual or a business, you can create wallets to send or receive bitcoins. If you used a PayPal account, you can easily use this type of wallet as well. The good thing about cryptocurrency is that it is based on a secure network. In addition, it makes all transactions completely secure.
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Can you mine bitcoins at home?

If you are interested in mining bitcoins at home, the description below can help you get started.

Cryptocurrency mining

Cryptocurrency mining is an approach that involves confirming cryptocurrency transactions and making entries in the blockchain ledger. If you want to authorize or mine cryptocurrency transactions, you need to compete with many other minors by performing complex calculations. This type of processing requires a lot of processing power.
Once the transaction is done, the system will reward you with bitcoins or whatever currency you mine.

Can you use your laptop to mine bitcoins?

The good news is that you can use your laptop to mine bitcoins. However, the million dollar question is, can it make you enough money? Short answer: no. ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Even though you can mine with a laptop, you won’t earn more than pennies, which isn’t worth it.
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In other words, you need an extremely powerful computer with multiple graphics cards to enjoy the highest mining speed.

So, if you are interested in mining or investing in bitcoins, you can follow the tips given in this article.


Definition of Bitcoin

Bitcoin is known as the very first decentralized digital currency, basically coins that can be sent over the internet. 2009 was the year Bitcoin was born. The creator’s name is unknown, but this person was given the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto.
Advantages of Bitcoin.

Bitcoin transactions are made directly from person to person over the Internet. There is no need for a bank or clearing house to act as an intermediary. Thanks to this, the commission for transactions is much lower, they can be used in all countries of the world. Bitcoin accounts cannot be frozen, there are no prerequisites for opening them, the same with limits. Every day more and more merchants are starting to accept them. You can buy anything you want from them.
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How Bitcoin Works.

You can exchange dollars, euros and other currencies for bitcoins. You can buy and sell as any other country’s currency. To keep your bitcoins, you have to store them in so-called wallets. These wallets reside on your computer, mobile device, or on third-party websites. Sending bitcoins is very easy. It’s as easy as sending an email. Bitcoins can be used to buy almost anything.
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Why Bitcoin?

Bitcoin can be used anonymously to buy all kinds of goods. International payments are extremely easy and very cheap. The reason for this is that Bitcoins are not actually tied to any country. They are not subject to any regulation. Small businesses love them because they don’t charge credit card fees. There are people who buy bitcoins only for investment purposes, expecting them to increase in value.
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Ways to buy bitcoins.

1) Buying on an exchange: People are allowed to buy and sell bitcoins on sites called bitcoin exchanges. They do this using their country’s currency or any other currency they have or like.

2) Transfers: People can simply send bitcoins to each other using their mobile phones, computers or online platforms. It’s the same as sending cash digitally.
3) Mining: The network is protected by individuals called Miners. They are regularly rewarded for all new verified transactions. These transactions are fully verified and then recorded in a so-called public transparent ledger. These people compete to mine these bitcoins by using computer hardware to solve complex mathematical problems. Miners invest a lot of money in equipment. Nowadays there is something called cloud mining. Using cloud mining, miners simply invest money in third-party sites, these sites provide all the necessary infrastructure, reducing equipment costs and energy consumption.

Safekeeping and custody of bitcoins.

These bitcoins are stored in so-called digital wallets. These wallets exist in the cloud or on people’s computers. A wallet is something like a virtual bank account. These wallets allow people to send and receive bitcoins, pay for things, or simply store bitcoins. Unlike bank accounts, these Bitcoin wallets are never FDIC insured.

Types of wallets.

1) Cloud Wallet: The advantage of a cloud wallet is that people don’t need to install any software on their computers and wait for long synchronization processes. The downside is that the cloud can be hacked and people can lose their bitcoins. However, these sites are very safe.

2) Desktop Wallet: The advantage of a desktop wallet is that people keep their bitcoins safe from the rest of the internet. The downside is that people can delete them when they format their computer or because of viruses.

Bitcoin anonymity.

There is no need to provide a person’s real name when making a Bitcoin transaction. Each Bitcoin transaction is recorded in a public ledger. This log contains only wallet IDs, not people’s names. so basically every transaction is private. People can buy and sell things without tracking.

Bitcoin innovation.

Bitcoin has created a whole new way of innovation. All bitcoin software is open source, meaning anyone can view it. Today, Bitcoin is changing global finance just as the Internet has changed everything about publishing. The concept is brilliant. When everyone has access to the entire global bitcoin market, new ideas emerge. Lower transaction fees are a fact of Bitcoin. Accepting Bitcoin costs anything, and it’s also very easy to set up. Refunds do not exist. The Bitcoin community will create spin-offs of all kinds.

How to find out if someone is an entrepreneur

One thing defines an entrepreneur – constructive action.

They tend to be sales people – doing *anything* to get people to buy their stuff. We all have an image in our head; a “wheeler trader”, picking up any opportunity to try to exploit (and other people) for profit.

Indeed, the term “entrepreneur” seems to have changed in today’s lexicon, from “something you’ve done” (usually to improve people’s lives) to a mix of “crazy hustler” and “someone who doesn’t ‘follow the rules'”. .

The reality of modern meaning cannot be further from the truth.

Entrepreneurship does not appear vocation or work. It’s not a label you put on yourself to make yourself more endearing to a certain party or clientele… it’s the way to do things.

Many “entrepreneurial” types do have jobs. They never recognize themselves as “entrepreneurs”, although they display all the traits of entrepreneurs. The question is, what are these traits and whether they exist you have them – or someone you know.

What is an “entrepreneur”?

Entrepreneur is a word that comes from the French language, generally describing “one who solves problems.”

Although its meaning has changed over the years, the premise remains – an “entrepreneur” is someone who creates a “widget” and has the ability to encourage other people to buy it.

That this “widget” may be a commercial product, service or an idea.

It’s really interesting…some of the greatest “entrepreneurs” in history really have nothing to do with money. They were completely focused on developing a specific “outcome” and devoted themselves wholeheartedly to its realization.

Whether that meant conquering the Persian Empire (Alexander), developing the light bulb (Edison) or creating stable PC systems (Gary Kildall), conquering the Aztec Empire (Cortes), the term entrepreneur indeed denotes one who wants to build something.

THE BIG difference between the “original” entrepreneurs and the new age group of idiots (who usually reinforce a hedonistic lifestyle + seem to be into “crypto”) is that the former were usually in one profession and managed to “leverage” that through the development of increasingly ambitious “projects”.

These projects could be anything…but they are everything was the main “reason” for existence. It was the reason that pushed the creator to keep trying and keep going even when it was questionable whether it was even “possible” or not. Obviously, the reason we remember them is that they not only discovered that it was “possible” but that it was completely doable…hence their success.

How to tell if someone is single

A typical sign – they will surprisingly things…

  • interest in esoteric ideas

  • the pursuit of interests not directly related to the accumulation of wealth

  • strong manifestations of passion for certain subjects

  • an exciting character with different ideas (trying to recreate historical events, etc.)

The thing is, REAL entrepreneurs usually don’t care about money in general.

Their main concern is the creation of “things”. What that is is determined by either their character or their interests… but in everyone For example, when a person has achieved great success, he has been completely and utterly focused on doing “his” thing, no matter what.

This is actually important.

It seems that in today’s world, every 18-year-old male wants to be an “entrepreneur” – like it’s a badge of honor or something. If you don’t “grow” you “die”… right?

The truth is that our society has become so focused on convenience that most of these money-grabbing idiots have no business at all, even if they consider themselves “entrepreneurs”.

They have no experience, no skills, and they are only latching on to the latest “fad” to escape the mediocrity that has overtaken Western consumer culture.

Entrepreneurship usually follows YEARS of interest in a particular topic. This usually involves a HUGE investment of time and energy in developing a skill set, experience and “involvement” in a particular space.

The most important thing – entrepreneurship – is to do something “your own way”.

Stay away from today’s idiots

THE BIGGEST problem I see all the time with crowds of idiots is that they ALL follow a “book” or some other “rule” of “how” to be an entrepreneur.

I see it everything time… boys are reading everything biographies, neural studies, the latest books of the big rich fat cat all try to discover the “secret” of massive success.

The ironic thing is that all these things only work on the “outside” side of the problem – the same people who read all the “stuff” end up asking the ONE and ONLY questions… “what am I selling?”- “how do I know will I make money from the product?” – “what secret get rich?”

  • If you have to ask “what am I selling”, you are not an entrepreneur.

  • If you have to listen to what a “successful” person has to say about a topic, you are not an entrepreneur.

  • If you have to follow all the “rules” put forward by others, you are not an entrepreneur.

The fact is that today’s world is full of wannabe losers. Even the “successful” ones aren’t really successful – they may have made a ton of money, but what are they really to achieve? The answer is relatively little (or even nothing).

The truth is, if you want to “be” an entrepreneur, you need to put in the work.

EVERYONE has their own job. Some are models. Some football players. Some of them are programmers. Some are artists.

The “trick” is to do ANYTHING to move the industry forward; if necessary, wash the floors.

Once you start making progress, the “entrepreneurial” stuff comes along the use of leverage any progress made in it is either to build and sell the product or to help the market better appreciate the potential of another device/product.

Traits of “real” entrepreneurs

  • Quietly (or at least reserved)

  • Fully capable hugging failure (actually using it as an incentive to change/adapt)

  • Works constantly on different elements in their “industry” (again, each has a place)

  • Not afraid social constructions (just because someone said it wasn’t true)

  • Laser focused on ‘them’ want to do (do you want to bring sustainable agriculture to Africa? That’s what a “real” entrepreneur would actually do)

  • Not afraid to give freely (most “entrepreneur” types are not tied to money at all… usually don’t have much until they achieve commercial success)

If you haven’t worked it out, the bottom line is the goal.

In today’s world there is very little focus on goals; rather, it is performance oriented.

There’s nothing wrong with that, but it robs most people of their passion. That’s good for GDP and McDonald’s – but bad for the creativity hidden in so many people.

If you want to adopt “entrepreneurial” traits, the key is to set yourself up for a specific “purpose” – through which you can invest your whole of life.

If you just look at a Ferrari and think “I want to get rich” – entrepreneurship won’t do it. This is a very a difficult path, where only the most persistent and hardy survive.

You need to put in the work, and only then will you discover hidden opportunities where you can apply your knowledge, experience or network to build something of real value to the world. This real value is then absorbed by the market, which will either pay handsomely for it – or abandon it. This is largely what determines whether someone can be considered an “entrepreneur” or not.

Open Sesame – Password Security

“Open Sesame!” probably the most famous password in literature. This gave Ali Baba access to vast treasures. In the realm of technology, computer passwords also provide access to valuable treasures: valuable business and personal data.

Information about your personal life, shopping habits, credit score and lifestyle is valuable to those who can profit from it. For a corporation, information is even more valuable. More than half of the value of a modern enterprise is not brick and mortar, but intangible assets such as intellectual property, customer lists, market strategies, pricing and compensation.

All of this personal and business data is likely in a database somewhere and accessible with a password. In fact, passwords are the most common means of logging into any system. They are also recognized as the most vulnerable places for security.

“Weak” or cracked passwords are the easiest way for hackers to gain access to your system.

Simple or short passwords can be easily found using “brute force” or “dictionary”

attacks that concentrate intensive computer power to crack a password. A two-letter password, for example, has only 676 combinations. An eight-letter password provides greater security with 208,000,000 combinations.

Ideally, the password should be 8 or more characters. They must also contain

a mix of upper and lower case letters, symbols and numbers. “A$d3B5i9X” will

be an example. Microsoft Security encouraged the concept of a “passphrase” as an alternative. A phrase like “The last good book bought was $25!” has all the necessary elements and is also easy to remember.

Human factors or social engineering contribute to password cracking. Employees are supposed to share their password eight times a year. Passwords can also be coaxed from untrained or naive workers. The standard rule is NEVER share your password.

Remember the cliché “Six degrees of separation”. You can’t know who will end up getting your password and owning it.

To deal with these challenges, many leading firms are adopting a defense-in-depth strategy, using three elements to better protect their information

The three levels of authentication consist of:

What you know…

A strong password or passphrase

What do you have…

Crypto key, smart card or token

Who are you…

The biometric aspect, such as fingerprint, hand or retina recognition

The use of these three safeguards will increase dramatically in the future as people seek to prevent ever-increasing threats to their private and personal information.

Many companies will introduce them as an important part of security.

practices to safeguard an extremely valuable asset: their valuable data.

© 2004 Terence F. Doheny

Random Number Generators: True Randomness

I. Introduction:

Random (adj): a: lacking a definite plan, purpose, or pattern. b: made, done, or chosen at random c: relating to, having, or being elements or events with definite probability of occurrence. d: being or relating to a set or to an element of a set each of whose elements has equal probability of occurrence. [Oxford English Dictionary]

Before commencing deep discussion of the art of “true randomality”, it must first be made clear that true randomness is theoretically impossible by the defining principals of our universe. The definition above clearly defines the paradox that surrounds the concept of randomality when subject to probability. In essence we will claim that “truly random” is the state in which for a given set A, for any i, element in A, i if chosen at random, has a probability of [1/|A|] (where |x| denotes cardinality of the set) of occurrence. This is how we judge the “randomness” of a Random Number Generator (RNG(s)), by its ability to exploit probability; given a set A, a perfect RNG will not repeat an element before the set is exhausted; described as the period of a generator, its point of repetition.

It must be noted that defining a choice as random is a classification that relies on pure ignorance of the causes and events that result in the ultimate choice. With that aside, the philosophical discussion of “true randomness” will be left behind. The remainder of the discussion will judge “true randomness” as stated above; perfect probabilistic distribution over a given finite field. Although such distribution has never been possible with the various algorithms being discussed, (meaning such a distribution could not be perfect on every occurrence of a specific algorithm) relatively good distribution suffices.

I.i Various Uses of Random Number Generators:

Random numbers have a multitude of applications. Of particular interest to this study and intended future studies by the author is Cryptography. Many cryptographic protocols make use of RNGs, particularly, public key cryptography (RSA) and some implementations of symmetric ciphers (DES, Serpent). Besides cryptographic function however, RNGs are used in Simulations, for the realistic recreation of “natural” occurrences; in this case, computer games are qualified as simulations, in which RNGs are heavily used in conjunction with probability weights (Gaussian). They’re also used for integrity testing on various computer applications during development, even hardware tests, such as GPU to memory pipelines on AGP based graphic cards. Among those mentioned are many other uses and purposes for the development and “perfection” of making truly random choices.

I.ii Brief Algorithm Introduction:

Random number generating algorithms come in multiple flavors; these can be separated into two main groups, linear number generators (LNG(s)) and non-linear number generators (NLNG(s)). Each group contains multiple types of RNGs and each of these, have their purpose and uses. It is important to know that although not all generators are made equal, good generators have purposes for which other good generators are not suited to perform.

I.ii.a Linear Number Generators:

Linear Congruential Generators (LCG(s)) deserve first mention purely on the basis of ubiquity. LCGs and their various spawns and modifications are used in various applications. The LNGs in their purest form are nearly as predictable as the Fibonacci Sequence. These are seeded generators that make their “choices” – if that can be said – linearly in the given finite field, based on their seed. The come in more flavors that most other generator types, no doubt, due to the simplicity of modifying the algorithm for specific purposes.

I.ii.b Non-Linear Number Generators:

The Inversive Congruential Generator (ICG(s)) and the Explicit Inversive Congruential Generator (EICG(s)) are the two main focuses in this category. These generators are non-linear (as implied), and therefore are not predictable the way that LNGs are. Also mentioned in the non-linear group is the Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR(s)) generator. This generator, although linear, as implied by its name, carries the principles of Non-Linear Generators in its implementation; so much so, that LFSRs closely resemble their non-linear counter parts, Non-Linear Feedback Shift Register generators. The details of the history of Feedback Shift Registers go slightly beyond the scope of this paper however a brief introduction to the principals of feedback functions and shift registers is given in parallel with the LFSR discussion.

II Linear Congruential Generators:

LNGs ultimately generate a sequence of integers between 0 and a given modulus, for the equation Ij+1 = aIj + c (mod m). In this equation, m is used as the modulus, a is a multiplier, and c is an increment. The sequence will repeats within a period of m, where m is usually prime.

The advantage of the LNG is immediately noticed by the equation above; its fast, requiring one multiplication, one addition, and one modulus. This immediately lends itself to explaining its wide uses. This type of generator is used in a multitude of applications for which the nature of the random sequence doesn’t matter, only that it be a different sequence from execution to execution; Monte Carlo simulations for example. The speed and simplicity of the algorithm has also led to the amount of flavors developed for different applications. For instance, the equation above is the same equation that the ANSI C/C++ committee has dubbed for use with these languages, given appropriate values for a, c, and m. Besides the linear equation, there are also:

Quadratic LCG:

Xn = (aXn-12 + bXn-1 + c) mod m

Cubic LCG:

Xn = (aXn-13 + bXn-12 + cXn-1 + d) mod m

There are also polynomial LCGs, Truncated LCGs, etc; each of which work on the same principle and are generally predictable and breakable. For example, the standard LCG was first broken by Jim Reeds, and Quadratic and Cubic Generators broken by Joan Boyar.

It should be noted that most modifications to LCGs simply yield worst generators. Since linear generators can only be judged based on their progression through a linear field, and not on a probabilistic survey of a given set, the period of a LCG is of paramount importance, more so than other Congruential generators, even in non-linear fields. There are multiple methods for extending the period of a given generator, however many attempts, unpredictably yield shorter periods. Computing history, both hardware and software, is filled with the “botched” attempts to improve LCGs. Notably, early IBM mainframes with the RANDU routine, using a = 65539, and m = 231 producing a n – dimensional plot in only 11 plane dimensions. There’s also the problem of seeding the generator; each sequence is only as unique as its seed. The Netscape browser’s security was a one point compromised due to the predictability of the chosen seeds in it LCG for which it created crypto-keys.

It is possible to force an LCG to be probabilistically correct, by creating uniform deviations. The problem with focusing on the deviation of an LCG is that a well deviated LCG will have an extended period, but its complexity increases, due to the deviation, sometimes beyond the useful range of LCGs. It is also possible to use deviations normalized in a given interval, such as Gaussian deviations, where the period is lengthened such that every integer in the given field is selected.

III Inversive Congruential Generators and Linear Feedback Shift Registers:

Defined as our non-linear generators, ICGs and EICGs, developed by Eichenauer and Lehn (1986, 1993) are defined by the following congruence:

yn+1 = ayn + b (mod m)

Where, for practicality, m is also chosen as a prime number in parallel to LCGs. These two generators are most notable due to their speed and period efficiency compromise. They produce relatively long periods, in (5 – 10x average) more time, than LCG.

III.i Linear Feedback Shift Registers:

LFSR generators are of more relevance here, as a suitable alternative to LCGs for cryptographic applications. Shift registers work on the concept of generating on the bit level, instead of in a base 10 finite field. They address the problem of creating uniform distribution of single random bits, with 0 and 1 equally probable.

LFSR generators are made up of two parts, the shift register and the feedback function. The shift register is the bit sequence, in which the size of the shift register is determined by the length of its bits. When bits are needed, the register is shifted 1 bit to the right, and the left bit is computed based on the remaining bits in the register. The simplest method of representing LFSRs feedback function is the XOR of key register bits. The method used by the feedback function is called tap sequence.

It’s obvious, that an n-bit LFSR can be in 2n -1 states; noting that the size of the register denotes its length. Therefore, a 4 bit register (1111 would be called a 4 bit register, based on the cardinality of the register, rather than the value of the high order bit, base 10) would yield 24-1, or 15 unique states. With an output sequence of the least significant bits following the shifts, the size of the register defines a period or 2n – 1 bits before repetition, therefore yielding a base 10 value of 22**n -1 as maximum value, and period. In order to reach this maximum period, a primitive polynomial must be formed by the tap sequence, where the degree of the polynomial yields the length of the shift register.

III.i.a Primitive Polynomials in Linear Feedback Shift Registers

A primitive Polynomial is defined as an irreducible polynomial P of degree d in [Z/p[x]] (denoting finite field of p[x] in Z) is primitive if P divides xd – 1 but does not divide xi – 1 for any integer i with 0 xn = 1 mod P


xi != 1 mod P for 0

It is not necessary to check all smaller exponential values than d, but only possible values from the divisors of degree d.

There is no easy method for generating primitive polynomials modulo 2 for a given degree. Therefore, choosing random polynomials and testing if its primitive is the most used method.

III.i.b Maximizing and Reaching the Period of an LFSR

As stated above, the period of any LFSR is based on the size of the shift register; the size of the shift register is based on the degree of the polynomial, therefore the period of the LFSR is determined by the polynomial used. Primitive polynomials are necessary here because if the polynomial used is not primitive, the period will be shortened, and there may be bad states which may shorten the period further. Therefore choosing a primitive polynomial is of dominant importance to any LFSR.

Given the polynomial, x8+x4+x3+x2+x which is primitive modulo 2, a maximal period can be produced. The first exponent is the length of the shift register, and all exponents except 1 and 0 are used to specify the tap sequence by the feedback function, where low degree terms correspond to the left most register bits. Therefore, in a given 8-bit shift register, a new bit is generated by XORing the 8th, 4th, 3rd and 2nd bits of the register together. The LFSR that results from this polynomial will have a precise period of 28-1.

Linear Feedback Shift Registers are found in many places, such as in Ueli Maurer’s Fast Prime Generation routine, but most commonly in the stream-cipher domain of cryptography. Therefore the propagation of primitive polynomials is important to success of such ciphers. The polynomial used in LFSRs is as important as the seed used in a LCG. Just as LCGs are cracked by deterministic seeds, LFSRs are also cracked by many organizations, based on the use and reuse of deterministic primitive polynomials. It should also be noted that the algorithm itself is completely linear when sequential bits are taken into account, however its implementation in software makes in non-linear. By running simultaneous LFSR applications (32 for a computer with a word size of 32) nonlinear sequences can be produced; rather, seemingly nonlinear, described as a large linear complexity.

IV Discussion:

The Linear Congruential Generators we presented here for an ease into the concept of random number generation, and for study of a variety of methods of generation. However, in the domain of cryptography, LCGs are all but irrelevant. LFSR, and their “cousins” Non-Linear Feedback Shift Registers are of more relevance to the authors interest. Besides the methods described above, another interesting method of generating random numbers are also worth brief mention.

Symmetric block ciphers are also capable of producing randomality. Beginning with block product ciphers like LUCIFER and DES, the use of block ciphers to produce random bits, although many times slower than LCG and even LFSR, yields considerably random bit sequences. The more recent successor to DES, AES (Rijndael algorithm) and even the runner up contender to AES, Serpent, have also been used for the generation of random bits.

Essentially, the philosophical debate of the concept of randomality displays the obvious difficulty in constructing a truly random algorithm. The fact that most random generation algorithms are based on random sequences, be they number sequences or bit sequences, undermines the term random from the very first line of code and comments justifying its feasibility. However, random sequences are frequently used, and make amply use of the ignorance factor. As long as new methods of seeding and new primitive polynomials are found, for which we have an infinite supply, the number generators above will remain in use. The possible existence of a truly random number algorithm is questionable, but with many algorithms and sequences still remaining unbroken and uncharted, that existence cannot be denied.

Latest trends in cloud computing in 2020

In today’s corporate industry, the use of cloud computing has become the unspoken norm. Almost everyone has heard of it, and its benefits are far-reaching and wide–saving costs, increasing efficiency, helping you get work done faster, etc. In various market studies conducted over time, the results have shown that this trend of using cloud computing by business and technology companies is bound to increase in the coming years.

There have been some noteworthy changes in cloud computing so far, and it will be important for companies to take a look at them as they invest their time and capital into cloud computing.

quantum computing

Quantum computing literally translates to tasks that once took hours will now take exponentially less time, seconds to be exact. This means that computers and servers will now process information much faster than usual, increasing the speed of the network in the near future. It must be remembered that today’s networks are based on cloud computing, which means that cloud computing is bound to undergo significant technological changes due to the development of quantum computing.

Using Blockchain

Blockchain technology has led to the development of faster network systems. Many businesses, especially financial technology, have increased their use of blockchain in their cryptocurrency analysis and validation. At the heart of it all is cloud computing, which can host crypto trading, initial coin offerings, among other things.

Enhancing digital literacy-

As the new workforce gains employment over time, we find that they are much better versed in the technological advancements of new technologies, especially cloud computing. In doing so, companies will see that they have two types of workers – technologically advanced and those who are not so technologically advanced. Companies will need to provide various training programs and coaching to keep the older generation up to date with digital technologies.

Labor mobility –

Based on the increase in digital knowledge among workers, a trend is soon catching up with new workers, which is related to the mobility of workers and their work. With cloud computing, workers do not need to be present in their offices and cubicles every time they work. They can work from anywhere, from any device, and get the job done. Any company that doesn’t offer them mobility won’t have loyal employees.

Limit Calculus –

Edge computing means “bringing computing closer to the data source.” Thanks to this, the connection between the network and the data source is significantly minimized, increasing the speed of calculations and significantly reducing costs. How does this happen? With can calculations. Such technology is used in modern devices such as smart refrigerators, smart speakers, cars, etc., and it is only possible because of cloud computing.

AI (Artificial Intelligence): A New Groundbreaking Invention –

Artificial intelligence is considered the future of digital automation. The automation tools it offers companies have surprised even the most optimistic people, and even with its criticism, people have begun to understand how useful artificial intelligence can be. With AI, we are expected to see a rise in the number of devices that use edge computing, which means that its foundation lies only in cloud computing. Artificial intelligence is something every business needs to pay attention to.

Serverless Computing –

It is a newly developed model of cloud computing in which a dynamic backend system helps to increase and decrease the usage according to the usage of your application or service, instead of using predefined servers. This technology is also considered futuristic and is supported by people like Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella. Open source serverless computing providers will gradually emerge, thereby reducing the need for server providers that you must contact to obtain their services.

Data Center Ecosystem –

By combining the power of machine learning, cloud computing and data processing with quantum computing, we will soon see software become a service rather than a subscription-based commodity, easily consumed by companies and business organizations with these newly developed technologies. So the time to complete the project will be reduced, costs will be reduced and we will see a reduction in redundant processes. It could be seen that the way data is viewed today will be revolutionized, with cloud computing technology at its core.

In conclusion, today’s advances in cloud computing are just a glimpse of what’s to come. It’s just a base. Driving all of this will be many new innovations and technologies that will revolutionize everything we do.

How Bitcoin Works

Bitcoins are a decentralized form of cryptocurrency. This means that they are not regulated by any financial institution or government. So, unlike a traditional bank account, you don’t need a long list of documents like an ID to create a so-called Bitcoin wallet. A bitcoin wallet is what you will use to access your bitcoins and send bitcoins to other individuals.

How to set up an account

You can purchase a Bitcoin wallet from a Bitcoin broker such as Coinbase. When you open a wallet through a certified broker, you are given a Bitcoin address, which is a series of numbers and letters, similar to an account number for a bank account, and a private key, which is also a series of numbers and letters, which serves as your password.

How Bitcoin works as an anonymous payment processor

You can do 3 things with bitcoins: make purchases, send money to someone anonymously, or use it as an investment. More and more merchants are accepting Bitcoin as a form of payment. By using bitcoins instead of cash, you are essentially making this purchase anonymously. The same goes for sending money, based on the fact that you don’t need to send a mountain of payment to establish bitcoin anonymously, in fact you can send money to someone else anonymously.

How Bitcoin Works as an Investment

The price of Bitcoin fluctuates from time to time. For a larger overview: At the beginning of 2013, the average price of Bitcoin was approximately $400 per Bitcoin, but by the end of 2013, the value of Bitcoin had exceeded $1,000. This meant that if you had 2 bitcoins worth $800 at the beginning of 2013 and you kept them as an investment until the end of 2013, those two bitcoins would be worth more than $2000 instead of $800. Many people hold bitcoins because their value fluctuates.

Bitcoin casino and poker sites

Because of Bitcoin’s anonymity, the gambling industry has adopted Bitcoin as a payment method. Both bitcoin casinos and bitcoin poker sites are coming alive and offering their players to make deposits, play with bitcoins at the table and withdraw money directly to their bitcoin wallet. This means that there are no taxes or opportunities for government control. Just like a regular Nevada casino where you don’t need to register anywhere and all your transactions are anonymous.

How do you send Bitcoin

To pay for goods and services or send bitcoins to an individual, 3 things are required. Your bitcoin address, your private key, and the person’s bitcoin address. From now on, you will host 3 pieces of information through your bitcoin wallet: input, balance and output. The input refers to your address, the balance refers to the number of bitcoins you intend to send, and the output is the recipient’s address.

Discretionary income selection

Making the most of your discretionary income

Discretionary income is what you have left after paying your fixed expenses. You can spend on what you choose.


How you spend that money can affect your financial situation, but before we do that, we need to understand what discretionary income is.


Expenses for the operation of the car



Products, etc.

People who have an addiction will prioritize their spending so that the addiction is included in their ongoing expenses.

As an adult, everyone has freedom of choice if they are debt-free, meaning their freedom is eroded by their level of debt.

The old saying, “The borrower is the slave of the lender” sums it up.

We all have some control over most of our fixed costs, such as groceries and electricity; we can downsize them but items like rates/rent are fixed but even then we can choose to live in a more modest apartment or downsize.

The excess of your expenses is called discretionary income.

Another way to increase your disposable (discretionary) income is to increase your income by getting a part-time job, getting a higher-paying job, or selling things online.

Saving your discretionary spending for a greater purpose instead of spending it gives your life some meaning. Instead of just letting things happen, you make things happen. Many people 10-20 years later wondered what happened.

There is a big difference between keeping your money and investing it. Astute discretionary investors grow their wealth by investing in higher risk stocks and shares, gold and cryptocurrency. There are enough online platforms where you can dig into these things while you’re still climbing the investment ladder.

But then you might prefer to save for a vacation and check off an item or two on your bucket list. Border closures will limit your choice of places, but here in New Zealand there are so many fantastic places to visit that it’s a chance to discover your own backyard.

Among the most popular activities in New Zealand are landing on Franz and Fox glaciers, diving in the hot pools of Hanmer Springs, visiting the Marlborough wine region or attending one of the sporting events around the country. One thing I have to mention here is the Tranz Alpine Express train journey between Christchurch and Greymouth. It is considered one of the best train journeys in the world, and having experienced it, I disagree. This should be on everyone’s bucket list.

Allow security to feel more grounded

In any case, first things first – cryptocurrencies that can be exchanged between people or associations that recognize them. Cryptographic types of cash aren’t a particularly modern concept – they’ve been around since the 1980s, and there are several around today.

Prominent among the most vexing problems with previous cryptographic types of cash was the “double spending” problem. This means that some person would spend a unit of cash and it was possible to control the systems to such an extent that when introduced he would be able to keep that unit with him, giving him the opportunity to spend that money again.

Bitcoin solved this problem through its dispersed structure called Blockchain. Since there is no central region ruled by a specific country or organization, the idea of ​​the Bitcoin blockchain is incredibly difficult to crack, and to some extent overkill.

To deal with all these security issues, Cryptobulls Exchange, which is the best trading platform, offers you a wide range of digital currencies that have built a powerful security framework to counter blunders and charges for the smooth functioning of exchanges. Your safety is an important goal and it is their main policy that they work on.

At Cryptobulls Exchange they manage security so you don’t have to as they follow industry rules and regulations.

Your phone will be verified the moment you join us and we’ll send you an SMS when you hit connect and each of your points of interest will go into the security system.

Not only that, we run 2-factor authentication to let the unapproved get through.

Just use your mobile phone to get a one-time login password. In case you face any problems, they are available all day, every day. You can contact them and their team will help you in solving your every problem.

Various exchanges and online wallets have already faced security breaches, and such organizations usually do not provide enough insurance and security to be used to store cash like a bank.

In any case, with this well-defined stage, you will get different types of bitcoin wallets to create strongly anchored exchanges. What’s more, you’ll get two-factor authentication.

So, what are you waiting for, start your exchange with Cryptobulls Exchange and experience security like never before.

How Blockchain Works

Blockchain is a piece of software designed to create decentralized databases.

The system is completely open source, which means that anyone can view, edit and propose changes to the underlying code.

​​​​​​While it is becoming more popular thanks to the rise of Bitcoin, it has been around since 2008, making it about a decade old (ancient in computing terms).

The most important point about the “blockchain” is that it was designed to create applications that do not require a centralized data processing service. This means that if you use the system built on top of it (namely Bitcoin), your data will be stored on 1000’s of “independent” servers around the world (not owned by any central service).

The service works by creating a “ledger”. This ledger allows users to create “transactions” with each other, storing the contents of those transactions in new “blocks” of each “blockchain” database.

Depending on the application that creates the transactions, they must be encrypted with different algorithms. Because this encryption uses cryptography to “encrypt” the data stored in each new “block,” the term “crypto” describes the process of cryptographically protecting any new blockchain data that an application may create.

To fully understand how this works, you need to understand that “blockchain” is not a new technology – it just uses technology in a slightly different way. At its core is a data graph known as Merkle trees. Merkle trees are essentially ways for computer systems to store “versions” of a set of data in chronological order, allowing them to manage constant updates to that data.

The reason this is important is that today’s “data” systems are what can be described as “2D”, meaning they have no way to track updates to the underlying dataset. The data is mostly stored in its entirety – with any updates applied directly to it. While there’s nothing wrong with this, the problem with this is that it means the data either needs to be updated manually or is very difficult to update.

The solution that blockchain provides is essentially to create “versions” of data. Each “block” added to the “chain” (the “chain” being the database) provides a list of new transactions for that data. This means that if you can link this functionality to a system that facilitates data transfer between two or more users (messaging, etc.), you can create a completely independent system.

This is what we saw with Bitcoin. Contrary to popular belief, Bitcoin is not a “currency” per se; it is a public ledger of financial transactions.

This public ledger is encrypted so that only the participants in the transactions can see/edit the data (hence the name “crypto”)… but more than that, the fact that the data is stored and processed by 1000’s of servers around the world means that the service can work regardless of any banks (its main advantage).

Obviously, leaving aside the problems with the basic idea of ​​Bitcoin etc., the basis of the service is that it is basically a system that runs on a network of processing machines (called “miners”). They all run on “blockchain” software and work to “compile” new transactions into “blocks” that keep the Bitcoin database as up-to-date as possible.

While many people blindly promise support for blockchain, it actually has a number of vulnerabilities – most notably that it relies almost entirely on the encryption algorithms used by its various applications. If one of these algorithms fails, or users are compromised in any way, the entire “blockchain” infrastructure can suffer as a result.

What is Bitcoin?

Over time, Bitcoins have become a very well-known and popular form of currency. However, what is Bitcoin? The following article will examine the pros and cons of this currency that came out of nowhere and spread like wildfire. How is it different from regular currencies?

Bitcoin is a digital currency, it is not printed and never will be. They are conducted electronically, and this is also not controlled by anyone. They are produced by people and businesses, creating the first ever form of money known as cryptocurrency. While conventional currencies can be seen in the real world, Bitcoin works through billions of computers around the world. From Bitcoin in the United States to Bitcoin in India, it has become a global currency. However, the biggest difference from other currencies is that it is decentralized. This means that no specific company or bank owns it.

Who created it?

Satoshi Nakamoto, a software developer, suggested and created Bitcoin. He saw this as a chance to have a new currency on the market free from central authority.

Who is printing this?

As mentioned earlier, the simple answer is no one. Bitcoin is not a printed currency, it is a digital currency. You can even transact online using bitcoins. So you can’t produce unlimited bitcoins? Not at all, bitcoin is designed to never “mine” more than 21 million bitcoins in the world at once. Although they can be broken down into smaller amounts. The hundred millionth part of a bitcoin is called a “satoshi” in honor of its creator.

What is Bitcoin based on?

Bitcoin is mainly based on gold and silver for normal use. However, the truth is that Bitcoin is actually based on pure mathematics. It also has nothing to hide as it is open source. So anyone can look at it to see if it works as they claim.

What are the characteristics of Bitcoin?

1. As mentioned earlier, it is decentralized. It is not owned by any particular company or bank. Each Bitcoin mining software makes up a network and they work together. The theory was, and it worked, that if one network goes down, the money still flows.

2. Easy to set up. You can create a Bitcoin account in seconds, unlike the big banks.

3. It’s anonymous, at least in that your bitcoin addresses are not linked to any personal information.

4. It’s completely transparent, all transactions using Bitcoin are shown on a big chart known as the blockchain, but no one knows it’s you because there are no names associated with it.

5. Transaction fees are negligible and compared to bank fees, the infrequent and small fees charged by Bitcoin are close to zero. It’s fast, very fast. Wherever you send the money too, it usually arrives within minutes of processing.g. It is non-disputable, meaning that once you send your bitcoins, they are gone forever.

Bitcoin has significantly changed the world and the way we view money. Many people wonder if it is possible to live off Bitcoins. Some even tried to do it. Despite this, Bitcoin is now a part of our economy, a unique kind of currency, and it is not going away anytime soon.

Blockchain Use Cases

Blockchain is what the name says – a block of transactions linked together in a chain. Blockchain technology, originally created to support the cryptocurrency Bitcoin, has become widely known and has the potential to revolutionize our lives, the economy, and the world. One of the greatest advantages of Blockchain is that all transactions are public. This means you can trace everything back to its origin.

For example, imagine a foodborne illness. Contamination could be traced from the plate to the supermarket and back to the source of the product. Let’s take this transparency a step further. We live in an armed society. Many weapons are traded illegally. Blockchain technology will not only eliminate the illegal trade, but will also be a way to bring the source of the illegal arms trade to justice. In addition to the ability of transactions to be public, blockchain transactions are also fast.

Blockchain can potentially replace current trading platforms because investors selling stocks through Blockchain will have instant access to their funds instead of the usual waiting time. Transactions made on the blockchain happen very quickly, at a low cost, and most importantly, are more secure than many, if not all, platforms. Security is a huge factor in Blockchain that is changing the world as we know it. Due to its design, Blockchain is virtually impossible to hack. Its transaction ledgers are decentralized, meaning that copies of these transactions exist and must be verified by nodes. Once a transaction is verified, it is “sealed” into a block and is virtually impossible to change. Since this platform is very secure, it can be used as a voting environment in the United States and even around the world.

There are so many alleged cases of corruption and fraud that voting using Blockchain would eliminate these fears. Again, everything is public. It’s instant. And it is very safe. There will be no worries that votes will be changed or votes will not be counted. The irrevocable book will confirm this. In addition to being public, secure and secure, Bitcoin is also very cost-effective. For most transactions, this eliminates the middleman. There won’t be much need for third parties to manage or review transactions. Companies won’t spend on security to prevent fraud because Blockchain has it covered. Companies will also be able to use Blockchain to assess their own supply chain and identify inefficiencies.

You find it funny that Blockchain started as a small platform to support Bitcoin and now the technology is bigger than what it was created to support. Although Blockchain technology is relatively new, there are many benefits that are too good to ignore. Blockchain technology is transparent. All transactions take place through a public ledger. Blockchain technology is both fast and cost-effective. And ultimately, blockchain technology is safe and secure.